By Ian Andreas Miller. 7 February 2002 (created), 17 October 2003 (first revision), 29 November 2003 (second revision), 21 June 2007 (third revision).

     Many researchers of the Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn franchise realize that the various continuities use gairaigo, or combinations of katakana characters that represent non-Japanese terms, for non-English terms such as papillon (the French word for “butterfly”) and chronos (the Greek word for “time”).  While some of those foreign terms, or etyma, are widely acknowledged by researchers, there are a number of other katakana-character combinations that are identical to gairaigo for non-English terms, and yet those combinations are not as widely thought to represent foreign terms.  The tendency not to think of those katakana-character combinations as gairaigo for foreign terms may be due to unfamiliarity of the etymology of the combinations, and to unfamiliarity with the foreign terms themselves.  This article presents ten katakana-character combinations, identical to gairaigo for non-English words, that are not usually acknowledged as gairaigo for non-English words, and yet they ought to be acknowledged as such if we follow the procedures that compel us to acknowledge such well-acknowledged terms as papillon and chronos.

     When considering which katakana-character combinations are to be acknowledged as gairaigo, researchers of the Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn franchise habitually appeal to what I refer to as Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent, comprising such information as naming patterns, tendencies, and spelling contentions.  We instinctively look at Naoko Takeuchi’s work and well as the various other continuities, such as the anime continuity itself, to deduce the rules that have been set up in those sources.  Visual, orthographic, and various other contextual clues serve as guides to the rules.  When we wish to know whether Seiya, Taiki, and Yaten are in a band named Three Rights or Three Lights, Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent tells us that “Three Lights” is favored over the suboptimal spelling “Three Rights.”  When we wish to know whether a character is named Sailor Red Crow or Sailor Lead Crow, Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent again tells us that “Lead” is favored over “Red.”

     There are two aspects of Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of which this article is particularly concerned.  One of them is the Principle of Etymic Orthography, which states that, when a katakana-character combination identical to a gairaigo for a well-established word appears in the canonical sources and particularly in Takeuchiana (Naoko Takeuchi’s own material), and it has a corresponding Roman-letter spelling, there is a tendency for the Roman-letter spelling to be a well-established one rather than a solecism or an unexpected nonce spelling.  In fact, the official English titles of the Japanese-language continuities, “Pretty Guardian Sailormoon” and “Pretty Guardian Sailormoon,” contain well-established words and a compound word comprising well-established words.  Misspellings do come up, of course, but there are instances of later corrections (e.g. “MERS” appears, but it is corrected to “MARS”).  The fact is that we simply do not find a significant Principle of Anetymic Orthography, whereby there is a tendency for the use of solecisms and unexpected nonce spellings instead of well-established words (e.g. “V-ness” instead of the well-established “Venus” and “Mer-Curie” instead of “Mercury”).  The other aspect is the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence, which states that the primary sources very often use katakana-character combinations that correspond to gairaigo for etyma from various languages, particularly French and Greek (very often terms from classical mythology).

     Researchers, whether they realize it or not, take both the Principle of Etymic Orthography and the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence in conjunction when acknowledging the various etyma such as papllon and chronos.  I have done the same thing when deciding which words should appear in this list.

Tiare, ティアル1
French: “Tiara” [ティアラ]

     Tiare2 was determined to be the etymon for ティアル because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Etymic Orthography), and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French words (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence).  The gairaigo for the word tiare is also seen as ティアール3.

     ティアル appears in the name エターナル・ティアル, which would be, according to what was said above, Eternal Tiare.  It is likely that the name has something to do with how Eternal Sailor Moon receives the Eternal Tiare, a magical staff, after her tiara disappears.  The top of the staff resembles an ornate crown.

Ἀμαζόνες (Amazones), アマゾネス4
Greek and French: “Amazons” [アマゾン]

     Ἀμαζόνες5, transliterated as Amazones6 in French, was determined to be the etymon for アマゾネス because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (Principle of Etymic Orthography), because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for Greek and French words (Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence), and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using real words from Graeco-Roman mythology.

     アマゾネス appears in the name アマゾネス・カルテット, which would be, according to what was said above, Amazones Quartet7.  In the manga, the girls of the Amazones Quartet say that they are descended from the アマゾネス, the Amazons8.

     Japanese dictionaries usually define the gairaigo アマゾン (Greek Ἀμαζών, “Amazon”), when it refers to people, as a plural word referring to the tribe of mythological Amazons9.  In that sense, アマゾン becomes synonymous with アマゾネス, the gairaigo for Ἀμαζόνες.  Since Japanese does not regularly inflect words to indicate the difference between singular and plural, the synonymity may be carried over to the singular so that アマゾン and アマゾネス refer to one Amazon (cf. レムレス used in the singular and plural in Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn even though the etymon, Latin Lemurēs, is plural only10).

     This singular use of the gairaigo アマゾネス seems to have confused some writers into thinking that the ネス implies the feminizing suffix -ess, suggesting a wasei-eigo (an English word coined by the Japanese or used in a Japanese-only context) “Amazoness”11 (cf. Famicom, from family and computer) with the same meaning as the gairaigo アマゾネス for Ἀμαζόνες (Amazones).  This is very likely the origin of the “Amazoness” spelling that appears on some non-canonical sources12.  The information above indicates that Ἀμαζόνες (Amazones) is the etymon while “Amazoness” is based on a misunderstanding of the use of アマゾネス.  The suffix -ess is not productive with a feminine word13, and a word formed in a like manner has no precedent at all in canonical sources.

Berthier, ベルチェ14
French Surname

     Berthier15 was determined to be the etymon for ベルチェ because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (thePrinciple of Etymic Orthography), and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French terms (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence).

     ベルチェ appears as the name of one of the Four Ayakashi Sisters.  It was used because it is part of ベルチェ鉱 (Beruche-kō, literally, “Berthier-Mineral”), the Japanese translation of Berthierite, the name of a mineral16.  The name fits the mineralogy naming scheme that Ms. Takeuchi used for her story.

     The “Beruche” spelling is very common in fandom.  It came from Beruche, the transliteration of the gairaigo ベルチェ.  It is possible that a piece of Japanese merchandise shows the spelling “Beruche,” but such a thing has not turned up.

Cálice, カリス17
Portuguese: “Chalice” [チャリス]

     Cálice18 was determined to be the etymon for カリス because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence), because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French terms (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence), because カリス is still an etymon-acknowledging gairaigo (ie. Japanese dictionaries still acknowledge it as a gairaigo)19, and because the spelling Cálice appears on a piece of merchandise20.

     カリス appears in the names ムーン・カリス and レインボー・ムーン・カリス, which would be, according to what was said above, Moon Cálice and Rainbow Moon Cálice, respectively.  The Holy Grail, a special cup containing much power, has been called the Moon Cálice and the Rainbow Moon Cálice.

     It seems that the Japanese use the gairaigo カリス more often than チャリス21.  The use of a gairaigo of a Portuguese word pertaining to religion is hardly surprising because there was Jesuit missionary activity in Japan in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Rêve, レーヴ22
French: “Dream” [ドリーム]

     Rêve23 was determined to be the etymon for レーヴ because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Etymic Orthography), and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French words (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence).

     レーヴ appears in the name スタリオン・レーヴ, which would be, according to what was said above, Stallion Rêve.  In the anime, Chibiusa uses the Stallion Rêve, a magical item, when she communications with the winged horse Pegasus.  The importance of dreams is a dominant theme of the SuperS season.

     The name スタリオン・レーヴ has been misheard in the past as “Stallion Stable.”  This confusion might have something to do with the fact that the phonetic pronunciation of the gairaigo レーヴ is the same as レーブ, transliterated as rēbu, which sounds a little like stable24ステイブル and ステーブル25 are the usual gairaigo for the English stable.

Paredrī, パレドリイ/パレドリー26
Latin: “Familiar” [ファミリアー]

     Paredrī27 was determined to be the etymon for パレドリー because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Etymic Orthography), and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French words (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence).

     パレドリー appears in the name ミラー・パレドリー, which would be, according to what was said above, Mirror Paredrī.  In the anime, the Mirror Paredrī are representations of Nehellenia that are made out of mirror glass.  In classical mythology, Paredrī were familiar spirits28Paredrī is actually the plural of Paredros, a Latinized version of the Greek form of the word, Πάρεδρος29.

     In various sources, パレドリー is written as パレドリィ or パレドリイParedrī may be seen written as Paredrii, but that is an incorrect spelling because the singular form of the word is Paredros, not something like Paredrios.  It is possible that the パレドリイ variant of パレドリー reflects the misspelling Paredrii.

Sabão, シャボン30
Portuguese: “Soap” [ソープ]

     Sabão31 was determined to be the etymon for シャボン because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Etymic Orthography), because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French words (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence), because シャボン is still an etymon-acknowledging gairaigo (ie. Japanese dictionaries still acknowledge it as a gairaigo)32, and because the spelling Sabão appears on more than one piece of merchandise.

     シャボン appears in the name シャボン・スプレー, which would be, according to what was said above, Sabão Spray.  In the anime, Sailor Mercury uses the special attack named Sabão Spray to hurl soap bubbles that produce a mist that covers the area and confuses her enemies.

     The spelling Sabão appears on two Japanese sources.  One source is the Nakayoshi Media Book #9 for the first season of the anime, where the words “Sabão Spray” appear on the cover.  The other source is SuperS Movie Memorial Album, where the same words appear on page 4433.

     “Shabon” is a very common spelling in fandom.  It came from shabon, the transliteration of the gairaigo シャボン.  There is no known instance in the Japanese sources that shows “Shabon” instead of the etymic spelling Sabão.  Many Japanese use the gairaigo without specifically referring to the Portuguese word.  Nevertheless, the dictionaries indicate that it is still an etymon-acknowledging gairaigo.

Cathédrale, カテドラル34
French: “Cathedral” [カセドラル]

     Cathédrale35 was determined to be the etymon for カテドラル because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Etymic Orthography) and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French words (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence).

     カテドラル appears in the name マリン・カテドラル, which would be, according to what was said above, Marine Cathédrale.  In the anime, the Marine Cathédrale is an actual cathedral that appears in the third season.  A Marine Cathédrale is mentioned in the manga, but it is never shown.  Michiru’s violin is said to be from that place.

     “Cathedral” is a very common spelling for the カテドラル part of マリン・カテドラル in fandom.  Perhaps many researchers who come across the name マリン・カテドラル are not fully aware that カテドラル is a gairaigo for the French word, not the English one.  The usual gairaigo for the English word cathedral is カセドラル36.

Σειρήν [Seirēn], セイレーン37
Greek: “Siren” [サイレン]

     Σειρήν38, transliterated as Seirēn, was determined to be the etymon for セイレーン because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using real words from classical mythology, and the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Etymic Orthography), and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for Greek words (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence).

     セイレーン appears in the name セーラー・アルーミナム・セイレーン, which would be, according to what was said above, Sailor Aluminum Seiren.  In the various continuities, Sailor Aluminum Seiren is one of Sailor Galaxia’s underlings.  The outfit that she wears has features that were inspired by the sirens from Greek mythology (e.g. her earrings are wing-shaped, suggesting the wings on the mythical sirens39).

     “Siren” is a very common spelling for the セイレーン part of セーラー・アルーミナム・セイレーン in fandom.  This fact may seem strange when we consider that when the characters in the anime say the word, it sounds more like “say-rain” than “sigh-wren,” the English pronuncation of the English form siren.  The usual gairaigo for the English siren is サイレン.

Violon, ヴィオロン40
French: “Violin” [バイオリン]

     Violon41 was determined to be the etymon for ヴィオロン because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using real words from classical mythology, because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using a well-established word instead of a solecism when the katakana-character combination is the same as a gairaigo for a well-established word (the Principle of Etymic Orthography), and because of the Takeuchian and Canonical Precedent of using katakana-character combinations that are the same as gairaigo for French words (the Principle of Gairaigo Concurrence).

     ヴィオロン appears in the name サブマリン・ヴィオロン・タイド, which would be, according to what was said above, Submarine Violon Tide.  Sailor Neptune uses her violin to perform the special attack Submarine Violon Tide in the manga.

     “Violin” is a very common spelling for the ヴィオロン part of サブマリン・ヴィオロン・タイド in fandom.  Perhaps many researchers who come across the name サブマリン・ヴィオロン・タイド are not fully aware that ヴィオロン is a gairaigo for the French word, not the English word violin.  The usual gairaigo for the English word violin is バイオリン42.

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