“Suffixes: -tor, -trix, -trum

     The suffixes -tor (-sor), -trix, and -trum are used with verb stems and verb roots to form nouns denoting the agent or doer of an action.

     Thus, -tor, added to amā-, the stem or the verb amāre (“to love”), forms the agent noun amātor, meaning “lover” (male person) or “(male) person who loves”; -trix, added to the same stem, forms the agent noun amātrix, meaning “lover” (female person) or “(female) person who loves”; -trum, added to rōd-, from rōdere (“to gnaw”), forms the agent noun rōstrum, meaning “beak” (a thing that gnaws).

     It is recommended to use these suffixes only with verbs that have supine stems. Moreover, there should be a clear understanding of how these supine stems were formed.

-tor (-sor)

     The suffix -tor (-sor) has the same phonetic change as the supine stem ending -t (-s), and is added to the same form of the root or verb stem as that ending.

  1. When the supine stem ends with -t, the -t is replaced with -tor.

    • amā- (infinitive amāre, supine stem amāt-) + -tor = amātor
    • complē- (infinitive complēre, supine stem complēt-) + -tor = complētor
    • audī- (infinitive audīre, supine stem audīt-) + -tor = audītor
  2. When a verb stem or verb root ending with a certain consonant (e.g. d, r, t) combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form the ending combination -ss, and that ending combination forms a supine stem that ends with -s (one -s), then the -s is replaced with -sor.

    • rōd- (infinitive rōdere, supine stem rōs-) + -tor = rōsor (for rōd-tor, rōs-sor)
    • tond- (infinitive tondere, supine stem tons-) + -tor = tonsor (for tond-tor, tons-sor)
    • vid- (infinitive videre, supine stem vīs-) + -tor = vīsor (for vīd-tor, vīs-sor)
    • offend- (infinitive offendere, supine stem offens-) + -tor = offensor (for offend-tor, offens-sor)
    • curr- (infinitive currere, supine stem curs-) + -tor = cursor (for curr-tor, curs-sor)
    • haes- (infinitive haerere, supine stem haes-) + -tor = *haesor (for haer-tor, haes-sor)
    • gāvīd- (infinitive gaudere, supine stem gāvīs-) + -tor = *gāvīsor (for gāvīd-tor, gāvīs-sor)
  3. When a verb stem or verb root ending with a certain consonant (e.g. d, r, t) combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form a supine ending with -ss, then -ss is replaced with -ssor.

    • possid- (infinitive possideo, supine stem possess-) + -tor = possessor (for possid-tor)
    • aggred- (infinitive aggredere, supine stem aggress-) + -tor = aggressor (aggred-tor)
    • mit- (infinitive mittere, supine stem miss-) + -tor = missor (for mit-tor)
    • ius- (infinitive iubere, supine stem iuss-) + -tor = iussor (for ius-tor)
  4. When the supine stem ending -s is added to a verb stem or verb root to form a supine ending with -s, then the -s is replaced with -sor. (Sometimes a c or g before the supine stem ending -s and the suffix -sor disappears.)

    • expul- (infinitive expellere, supine stem expuls-) + -sor = expulsor
    • fal- (infinitive fallere, supine stem fals-) + -sor = *falsor
    • terg- (infinitive tergēre, supine stem ters-) + -sor = *tersor (for tergsor)
  5. When a verb stem or verb root combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form a supine ending with -x, then the -x is replaced with -xor.

    • crucifīg- (infinitive crucifīgere, supine stem crucifīx-) + -tor = crucifīxor (for crucifīg-tor)
    • flect- (infinitive flectere, supine stem flex-) + -tor = flexor (for flect-tor, flec-tor)
    • flu(v)- (infinitive fluere, supine stem flux-) + -tor = *fluxor (for flu(v)-tor, fluc-tor)

-trix

     The -trix suffix is added to the same form of the root or verb stem as the supine stem ending -t (-s), but its initial t does not change.

  1. When the supine stem ends with -t, the -t is replaced with -trix.

    • amā- (infinitive amāre, supine stem amāt-) + -trix = amātrix
    • complē- (infinitive complēre, supine stem complēt-) + -trix = *complētrix
    • audī- (infinitive audīre, supine stem audīt-) + -trix = *audītrix
  2. When a verb stem or verb root ending with a certain consonant (e.g. d, r, t) combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form the ending combination -ss, and that ending combination forms a supine stem that ends with -s (one -s), then -trix is added after the -s.

    • rōd- (infinitive rōdere, supine stem rōs-) + -trix = *rōstrix (for rōd-trix)
    • tond- (infinitive tondere, supine stem tons-) + -trix = tonstrix (for tond-trix)
    • vid- (infinitive videre, supine stem vīs-) + -trix = *vīstrix (for vīd-trix)
    • offend- (infinitive offendere, supine stem offens-) + -trix = offenstrix (for offend-trix)
    • curr- (infinitive currere, supine stem curs-) + -trix = curstrix (for curr-trix)
    • haes- (infinitive haerere, supine stem haes-) + -trix = *haestrix (for haer-trix)
    • gāvīd- (infinitive gaudere, supine stem gāvīs-) + -trix = *gāvīstrix (for gāvīd-trix)
  3. When a verb stem or verb root ending with a certain consonant (e.g. d, r, t) combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form a supine ending with -ss, then -ss is replaced with -strix.

    • possid- (infinitive possideo, supine stem possess-) + -trix = possestrix (for possid-trix)
    • aggred- (infinitive aggredere, supine stem aggress-) + -trix = *aggrestrix (for aggred-trix)
    • mit- (infinitive mittere, supine stem miss-) + -trix = *mistrix (for mit-trix)
    • ius- (infinitive iubere, supine stem iuss-) + -trix = *iustrix
  4. When the supine stem ending -s is added to a verb stem or verb root to form a supine ending with -s, then the -s is replaced with -trix. (Sometimes a c or g before the supine stem ending -s and the suffix -trix disappears.)

    • expul- (infinitive expellere, supine stem expuls-) + -trix = expultrix
    • fal- (infinitive fallere, supine stem fals-) + -trix = *faltrix
    • terg- (infinitive tergēre, supine stem ters-) + -trix = *tertrix (for tergtrix)
  5. When a verb stem or verb root combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form a supine ending with -x, then the -x is replaced with -ctrix.

    • crucifīg- (infinitive crucifīgere, supine stem crucifīx-) + -trix = *crucifīctrix (for crucifīg-trix)
    • flect- (infinitive flectere, supine stem flex-) + -trix = *flectrix (for flect-trix)
    • flu(v)- (infinitive fluere, supine stem flux-) + -trix = *fluctrix (for flu(v)-trix, fluc-trix)

-trum

     The -trum suffix is added to the same form of the root or verb stem as the supine stem ending -t (-s), but its initial t does not change.

  1. When the supine stem ends with -t, the -t is replaced with -trum.

    • amā- (infinitive amāre, supine stem amāt-) + -trum = amātrum
    • complē- (infinitive complēre, supine stem complēt-) + -trum = *complētrum
    • audī- (infinitive audīre, supine stem audīt-) + -trum = *audītrum
  2. When a verb stem or verb root ending with a certain consonant (e.g. d, r, t) combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form the ending combination -ss, and that ending combination forms a supine stem that ends with -s (one -s), then -trum is added after the -s.

    • rōd- (infinitive rōdere, supine stem rōs-) + -trum = rōs-trum (for rōd-trum)
    • tond- (infinitive tondere, supine stem tons-) + -trum = *tons-trum (for tond-trum)
    • vid- (infinitive videre, supine stem vīs-) + -trum = *vīs-trum (for vīd-trum)
    • offend- (infinitive offendere, supine stem offens-) + -trum = *offens-trum (for offend-trum)
    • curr- (infinitive currere, supine stem curs-) + -trum = *curs-trum (for curr-trum)
    • haes- (infinitive haerere, supine stem haes-) + -trum = *haes-trum (for haer-trum)
    • gāvīd- (infinitive gaudere, supine stem gāvīs-) + -trum = *gāvīstrum (for gāvīd-trum)
  3. When a verb stem or verb root ending with a certain consonant (e.g. d, r, t) combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form a supine ending with -ss, then -ss is replaced with -strum.

    • possid- (infinitive possideo, supine stem possess-) + -trum = *possestrum (for possid-trum)
    • aggred- (infinitive aggredere, supine stem aggress-) + -trum = *aggrestrum (for aggred-trum)
    • mit- (infinitive mittere, supine stem miss-) + -trum = *mistrum (for mit-trum)
    • ius- (infinitive iubere, supine stem iuss-) + -trum = *iustrum
  4. When the supine stem ending -s is added to a verb stem or verb root to form a supine ending with -s, the -s is replaced with -trum. (Sometimes a c or g before the supine stem ending -s and the suffix -trum disappears.)

    • expell- (infinitive expellere, supine stem expuls-) + -trum = *expultrix
    • fal- (infinitive fallere, supine stem fals-) + -trum = *faltrum
    • terg- (infinitive tergēre, supine stem ters-) + -trum = *tertrum (for tergtrum)
  5. When a verb stem or verb root combines with the supine stem ending -t (-s) to form a supine ending with -x, then the -x is replaced with -ctrum.

    • crucifīg- (infinitive crucifīgere, supine stem crucifīx-) + -trum = *crucifīctrum (for crucifīg-trum)
    • flect- (infinitive flectere, supine stem flex-) + -trum = *flectrum (for flect-trum)
    • flu(v)- (infinitive fluere, supine stem flux-) + -trum = *fluctrum (for flu(v)-trum, fluc-trum)

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